Varices are generally caused by incompetence of superficial veins
A SIMPLIFIED ANATOMY OF LEG VEINS
In the leg, there are mainly 2 groups of veins; deep veins and superficial veins. Deep veins, as they are called, are deep, between the muscle layers, not visible to the naked eye. Superficial veins are close to the skin, sometimes just below the skin, and are usually visible to the naked eye. These two vein groups merge in the groin and behind the knee. There are also numerous connecting vessels called "perforating veins" that connect deep and superficial veins.
What do the veins do?
Our leg veins send venous blood to the lung with the help of the valves inside. The leg muscles also help by working like a pump. In this way, our legs function in a healthy way. Deep veins are more important than superficial veins for circulation. If we compare the venous flow to a traffic flow, the deep veins are the "highways" of the leg and the superficial veins are the "streets or roads". Therefore, deep veins are indispensable vessels. The superficial veins are the "reserve" veins of our leg. If the deep veins are healthy, the superficial veins can be surgically removed, laser-burned, or used elsewhere in the body. The leg circulation will not be impaired by these events.
What is the vein flow?
The flow in the deep and superficial veins is unidirectionally upwards to the lungs. As mentioned above, this is accomplished thanks to the one way working valves in the leg vessels. In connecting vessels (perforating veins), the flow is normally from the surface to the deep. Venous blood flowing backwards, ie to the foot in superficial veins or to the surface in perforating veins is pathological and is termed venous incompetence, venous insufficiency, reflux or leakage. Venous insufficiency is mostly seen in superficial veins and perforating veins (connecting vessels), but in deep veins it is rare.
Some of our important veins:
Two of the superficial veins are the main veins and are important: The great saphenous vein extends under the skin from the foot to the groin and is connected to the deep veins in the groin. The small saphenous vein extends from the foot to the knee and is connected to the deep veins behind the knee. In addition, there are many superficial veins and "perforating" veins that transmit deoxygenated blood to deep veins. Deep veins are like the highways of our legs, and send all the venous blood from the leg to the lung. The deep veins are 3 pairs below the knee, ie 6 in total. They become a single vessel at the knee level. This vessel is called "popliteal vein" at the knee, "femoral vein" at the thigh, and "iliac vein" at the groin level.
What is lateral subdermic venous plexus (LSVP)?
LSVP is a network of medium and capillary varices, mostly seen in females, on the outer side of the leg and posterior of the knee. This network is actually the remnant of the normal veins that our legs use before the birth. During birth, with our first breathing and crying, these veins are disabled and replaced by the veins that we use today. LSVP exists in every human being but it is shrunk and dedicated. In some people, especially in women, it can be reactivated to form an ugly network of capillaries that most women find very unpleasant.